ABOUT OTOSCLEROSIS AND STAPEDOTOMY

How do we hear?

The ear consists of the outer, middle and inner ear. Sound travels through the outer ear and reaches the eardrum, causing it to vibrate. The vibration is then transmitted through three tiny bones in the middle ear called the ossicles. These three ossicles are called malleus, incus and stapes, sometimes known as hammer, anvil and stirrup. The vibration then enters the inner ear which is a snail-shaped bony structure filled with fluid. The nerve cells within the inner ear are stimulated to produce nerve signals. These nerve signals are carried to the brain, where they are interpreted as sound.



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ABOUT PAROTID SURGERY

What is the parotid and what causes parotid lumps?

The parotid gland makes saliva; you have two parotid glands, one on each side, in front of your ears. Lumps occur in the parotid due to abnormal overgrowth of some part of the salivary glands (a parotid gland tumour). Most tumours are benign, which means that they are not cancerous (malignant) and do not spread to other parts of the body. Rarely, malignant tumours can also affect the parotid. Your doctor will probably collect a needle sample from the lump in order to try to find out what sort of tumour you have.



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ABOUT RHINOPLASTY

What gives the nose its shape?

The shape of the nose on the outside is due to the shape of bone and cartilage and the overlying skin. The top of the nose is made of bone shaped like a roof, which is hard. The middle and tip of the nose are made of cartilage, which is softer. The skin varies in thickness from person to person, and this also affects the shape.



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ABOUT SEPTAL SURGERY

What is septal surgery?

The septum is a thin piece of cartilage and bone inside the nose between the right and left sides. It is about 7 cms long in adults. In some people this septum is bent into one or both sides of the nose, blocking it. Sometimes this is because of an injury to the nose, but sometimes it just grows that way. We can operate to straighten the septum.



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ABOUT SORE THROATS

Introduction

Sore throats are common and not always due to tonsillitis. Most acute sore throats are viral in origin. It is often difficult to tell the difference between viral and bacterial infections. Most patients recover within one week.



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ABOUT SURGERY OF THE SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND

What is the submandibular gland?

The submandibular glands are a pair of salivary glands under the jaw bone. Each gland produces saliva which goes through a long duct to its opening under the tongue at the front of the mouth. The production of saliva increases when we eat. The saliva secreted by the submandibular gland is a bit thicker than that produced by other salivary glands. Because of its thickness this saliva can sometimes form little stones.



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ABOUT TINNITUS

What is tinnitus?

Tinnitus is a sensation or awareness of sound that is not caused by a real external sound source. It can be perceived in one or both ears, inside the head or in the person's immediate environment. Although it is commonly assumed to be a ringing noise, tinnitus can take almost any form including hissing, whistling, humming and buzzing. Some people even hear musical sounds or sounds resembling indistinct speech. Some people hear a single sound whereas others hear multiple noises. For some, the sound is constant: for others it is constantly changing.



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ABOUT ADENOID SURGERY

What are the adenoids?

Adenoids are small glands in the throat, at the back of the nose. In younger children they are there to fight germs. We believe that after the age of about three years, the adenoids are no longer needed.



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BLOCKED NOSE

What is a blocked nose?

The sensation of a blocked nose is often referred to as nasal obstruction, a stuffy nose and nasal congestion. The severity of the nasal obstruction varies from one patient to the next. Some people find even mild nasal blockage quite troublesome, whereas others, with quite severe nasal obstruction, find it does not have a significant impact on their daily activities. Your specialist will take this into account when developing a plan for your treatment.



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ABOUT FACIAL SKIN LESIONS

What is a facial skin lesion?

A facial skin lesion is a flaw that could be a lump, crack, ulcer or abnormal discolouration of the skin that is not normally present.



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